Cases in Sanskrit

Nominative is used in the case of karta(or subject).

In Three Vachanas(Singular, Dual, Plural)

देव:    देवौ    देवा :

(One God, Two Gods, Many Gods)

Nominative case(the subject or Karta) (Prathama Vibhakti)

Accusative case used in the case of object in sentence

देवम    देवौ   देवान (Note the mark at the base of devam and devan)

(To one god, To two gods, to many gods)

Instrumental used in the case of करण or instrument

देवेन  देवाभ्याम  देवै:

(By One God, By two gods, by many gods)

Dative case used in case of समप्रदान i.e the receiver

देवाय  देवाभ्याम  देवेभ्य:

(For one god, for two gods, for many gods)

Nominative case definition:(For English)

The nominative case marks the subject of a verb. When the verb is active, the nominative is the person or thing doing the action (agent); when the verb is passive, the nominative is the person or thing receiving the action.

The boy saw her.
She was seen.
Predicate noun or adjective
The nominative can also change adjectives into nouns

Socrates was a wise man.
Socrates was wise.

Accusative case: (Object)
The accusative case (abbreviated acc) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all) prepositions.

Dative case:

The dative case (abbreviated dat, or sometimes d when it is a core argument) is a grammatical case used in some languages to indicate, among other uses, the noun to which something is given, as in Maria Jacobo potum dedit, Latin for “Maria gave Jacob a drink”.

The dative case is known as the “fourth case” (chaturthi-vibhakti) in the usual procedure in the declension of nouns. Its use is mainly for the indirect object as Sanskrit has seven other cases including an instrumental. The term “dative” is grammatically similar to the Sanskrit word “datta”. “Datta” means “gift” or “the act of giving”.

Instrumental case

The instrumental case (abbreviated ins or instr) is a grammatical case used to indicate that a noun is the instrument or means by or with which the subject achieves or accomplishes an action

The instrumental case in Classical Sanskrit can have several meanings:[1]

It can indicate the instrument (of an action):
रामो लेखन्या लिखति।
Rāmo lekhanyā likhati.
“Rāma writes with a pen”.
It can be used to indicate someone or something accompanying an action. In this case, the sense of “company” is indicated by postpositions like सह saha (“with”) (may be optionally omitted):
दासेन सह देवदत्तोऽगच्छत्।
Dāsena saha devadatto’gacchat.
“Devadatta went accompanied by the servant”.
It can indicate the agent of a passive verb:
देवदत्तेन यवं खाद्यते।
Devadattena yavaṁ khādyate.
“Barley is eaten by Devadatta”.
It can indicate the cause, reason or circumstance of an action. In this case, it can be translated as “because of”, “out of”, etc.:
दुःखेन ग्रामम् अत्यजत्।
duḥkhena grāmam atyajat.
“He abandoned the village out of misery”.
It is used with the preposition विना vinā (“without”):
जलेन विना पद्मं नश्यति।
jalena vinā padmaṁ naśyati.
“A lotus dies without water”.
It can also be used with the particles अलम् alam कृतम् kṛtam, both meaning “enough”.
कृतं कोलाहलेन।
kṛtaṁ kolāhalena.
“Enough with noise”.






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