Cases in Sanskrit -II

By Sunil Kumar

Continuing with the previous post;

Ablative Case पञ्चमी विभक्ति (paJNchamii vibhakti) of the noun-form(shabda rupa) represents the “from whom/what” of the sentence.

In other words ablative case represents the ablative in the sentence.

Ablation which means the removal or reduction in surgery or environmental processes

Later on the transformations/declensions/conjugations(change) in the dhatuform(i.e verb root). In nouns nominal stem is transformed.

Sanskrit nouns have eight cases: nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative, genitive, locative, and vocative.

Of these eight cases, Pāṇini identified six as kārakas, or accessories to a verb. The six kārakas are the nominative, accusative, dative, instrumental, locative, and ablative cases.[3] He defined them as follows (Ashtādhyāyi, I.4.24-54):
Kartā (‘agent’): “he/that which is independent in action”. This is equivalent to the nominative case

Karman (‘deed’/’object’): “what the agent seeks most to attain”. This is equivalent to the accusative case.


Karaṇa
(“instrument”) “that which effects most.”
This is equivalent to the instrumental case.

(On the basis of Scharfe, Hartmut (1977). Grammatical literature. History of Indian literature. 5. Wiesbaden: O. Harrassowitz. p. 9

Sampradāna (‘bestowal’): “he whom one aims at with the object”. This is equivalent to the dative case, which signifies a recipient in an act of giving or similar acts.

Apādāna (lit. ‘take off’): “(that which is) firm when departure (takes place).” This is the equivalent of the ablative case, which signifies a stationary object from which movement proceeds.

Adhikaraṇa (‘location’): or “substratum.” This is equivalent to the locative case.

Pāṇini did not identify the genitive (Sambandha) and vocative (sambuddha) as cases

Ablative case of देव continued in three vachanas

देवात  देवाभ्याम देवेभ्य:   (Note the long halant at the end of “t” and “ma” as always)

(Meaning: from one god, from two gods, from many gods)

Next Genitive not a “karak” case

षष्ठी विभक्ति (ShaShThii vibhakti): 

Genitive case: 
In grammar, genitive (abbreviated gen; also called the possessive case or second case) is the grammatical case that marks a noun as modifying another noun. It often marks a noun as being the possessor of another noun.

All of the cases that we have studied so far have described the way that a noun relates to a verb, or else to the sentence as a whole. This new case, however, does not. Instead, it describes a connection between two nouns. It implies the same sort of meaning as the English word “of.”

आचार्यस्य पुत्रो वनं गच्छति
ācāryasya putro vanaṃ gacchati
The son of the teacher goes to the forest.
पुत्रो वीराणां तिष्ठति
putro vīrāṇāṃ tiṣṭhati
The son of the heroes stands.
गजानां वनं गच्छन्ति
gajānāṃ vanaṃ gacchanti
They go to the forest of the elephants.

Case 6 is very flexible; the Sanskrit grammarian Panini even called it a “catch-all” case that should be used when no other case quite fits.

वीरस्य कृष्णो ऽश्वः (भवति)
vīrasya kṛṣṇo ‘śvaḥ (bhavati)
The hero has a black horse.

Genitive case of देव continued

 देवस्य  देवयो:    देवानाम् (Halant produced by f in Devanagari-QWERTY kbd)

Meaning: Of One God, Of Two Gods, Of Many Gods)

I will also discuss meaning in hindi and the karakas(synonymous concept to Sanskrit)

Next locative case used in adhikaran(location, support, on/in)

Now for the usual derivations(declensions) of dev

देवे     देवयो:         देवेषु        

Meaning: on/in one god, on/in two gods, on/in many gods

Locative Case /Karman (‘deed’/’object’): “what the agent seeks most to attain”. This is equivalent to the accusative case.

 

Study the following sentences. These are in locative case.
आङ्ग्लभाषा / English संस्कृत / Sanskrit Notes 1. Lotuses are in the lake. कमलानि कासरे सन्ति
kamalaani kaasare santi The words lake (कासर / kaasara), creeper (लता / lataa), forest (अरण्य / araNya), city (नगरी / nagarii), bed (शज्या / shajyaa), land (भूमि / bhuumi), Mahabharata (महाभारत / mahaabhaarata) and all (सर्व / sarva) are expressing location of something or someone. 2. Flowers bloom in the creeper. पुष्पाणि लतायां विकसन्ति
puShpaaNi lataayaa.n vikasanti 3. Elephants roam in the forest. गजाः अरण्ये सञ्चरन्ति
gajaaH araNye saJNcharanti 4. Offices are in the city. कार्यालयाः नगरीशु भवन्ति
kaaryaalayaaH nagariishu bhavanti 5. Child is sleeping on the bed. शिशुः शज्यायां शेते
shishuH shajyaayaa.n shete 6. Leaves fall on the ground. पर्णानि भूम्यां पतन्ति
parNaani bhuumyaa.n patanti 7. There are many stories in Mahabharata. महाभारते अनेककथाः विद्यन्ते
mahaabhaarate anekakathaaH vidyante 8. Atma is in everybody. सर्वस्मिन् आत्मा विद्यते
sarvasmin aatmaa vidyate In sentence 1 above, if we ask the question “where are the lotuses?”, the answer that comes is “lake”. So, “lake” is the locative in the sentence and the noun-form is in locative case or saptamii vibhakti. Similarly in sentence 3, if we ask the question “elephants roam where?”, the answer that comes is “forest”.

So, answer that comes from the question “where” is the locative in the sentence and is always in locative case. Followings are the rules where locative case is used.

Grammatical Rule: The word expressing the location of something or someone will be in locative case.

n general, a word in Sanskrit represents property(s).

Agni, one of the 33 devas mentioned in Vedas. Devas refer to terrestrial things of high excellence.

Here is a list of all the devas.

8 Vasus (Earth, Water, Fire, Air, Sky, Moon, Sun, Stars/ Planets) that form components of universe where we live,

10 Life Forces in our body (Prana, Apana, Vyana, Udana, Samaana, Naga, Kurma, Kukala, Devadatta)

Pranamaya kosha is made up of five major pranas, which are collectively known as the pancha, or five pranas: prana, apana, samana, udana and vyana.

Prana in this context does not refer to cosmic prana, but rather to just one flow of energy, governing the thoracic area between the larynx and the top of the diaphragm. It is associated with the heart and organs of respiration together with the muscles and nerves that activate them. It is the force by which the breath is drawn inside.

Apana governs the abdomen, below the navel region, and provides energy for the large intestine, kidneys, anus and genitals. It is concerned with the expulsion of waste from the body and is the force which expels the breath.

Samana is located between the heart and the navel. It activates and controls the digestive system: the liver, intestines, pancreas and stomach, and their secretions. Samana is responsible for transformation. On a physical level this relates to the assimilation and distribution of nutrients. On an evolutionary level it relates to kundalini and expansion of consciousness.

Udana governs the neck and head, activating all the sensory receptors such as the eyes, tongue, nose and ears. Udana also harmonizes and activates the limbs and all their associated muscles, ligaments, nerves and joints. It is responsible for the erect posture of the body, sensory awareness, and the ability to respond to the outside world.

Vyana pervades the whole body, regulating and controlling all movement, and coordinating the other pranas. It acts as the reserve force for the other pranas.

Along with these five major pranas there are five minor pranas known as the upa-pranas: naga, koorma, krikara, devadatta and dhananjaya. Naga is responsible for belching and hiccups. Koorma opens the eyes and stimulates blinking. Krikara generates hunger, thirst, sneezing and coughing. Devadatta induces sleep and yawning. Dhananjaya lingers after death and upon its departure, decay and decomposition of the body begins to happen.

and 1 Soul called Rudra,

12 Aditya or months of year

, 1 Vidyut or Electromagnetic force that is of tremendous use to us. 1 Yajna or constant noble selfless deeds done by humans.

Here, देव represents (the property of) being of great excellence or being heavenly. But, in spoken language, we always refer to objects and not properties. (The object being referred to need not exist in the real world. It is sufficient if it exists in the speaker’s imagination.)

So we need a way to force the word देव, to represent an object rather than a property. That way of forcing a word(which represents a property) to represent an object is called vibhakti.

Locative (abbreviated loc) is a grammatical case which indicates a location. It corresponds vaguely to the English prepositions “in”, “on”, “at”, and “by”.

The locative case exists in many language groups.

Now for the vocative case

Vocative Case or सम्बोधन विभक्ति (sambodhana vibhakti) of noun-form represents the word used to address or call someone or something.

Study the following sentences. These are in vocative case.

O! Boy हे बाल
he baala Here boy (बाल / baala), creeper (लता / lataa) and God (देव / deva) are in vocative case or सम्बोधन विभक्ति (sambodhana vibhakti)
O! Creeper हे लते
he late
O! God हे देव
he deva

Karakas(or accessories to the verb) were not there in locative and sambodhana(vocative) but in nominative, accusative, instrumental, dative, ablative and genitive.

इति समवाद – More Later In My Site Pour Moi!

 

 

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